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Common rare earth type
Time:2017-09-20

Ore

Monazite

Monazite (Monazite), also known as cerium lanthanum ore.

Chemical composition and properties: (Ce, La, Y, Th) [PO4]. Ingredients vary widely. Mineral content of rare earth oxide content of up to 50 ~ 68%. Y, Th, Ca, [SiO4] and [SO4]. Monazite is soluble in H4, HClO4, H2SO4.

Crystal structure and morphology: monoclinic, orthorhombic crystal. Crystal into a plate, crystal face often stripes, sometimes for the column, cone, granular.

Physical properties: brown, brown, red, or green. Translucent to transparent. Striped white or light redish yellow. With strong glass luster. Hardness 5.0 to 5.5. Brittle Specific gravity 4.9 ~ 5.5. Electromagnetism is weak. Emitting green light under X-rays. Do not emit light under cathodic rays.

Generating states: produced in granite and granite pegmatite; rare metal carbonate rocks; Yunyingyan and quartzite; Yunxia syenite, long neon and alkaline positive pegmatite; Alpine vein ; Mixed rock; and weathering crust and sand.

Uses: mainly used to extract rare earth elements.

Origin: the economic exploitation of the value of monazite main resources are alluvial or seashore sand deposit. The more important seashore sand deposits are on the coast of Australia, Brazil and India. In addition, Sri Lanka, Madagascar, South Africa, Malaysia, China, Thailand, South Korea, North Korea and other places contain monazite heavy sand deposits.

Monazite production in recent years showed a downward trend, mainly due to the ore in the thorium element with radioactive, harmful to the environment.

Fluorocarbonite

Chemical composition: (Ce, La) [CO. Mechanical mixture of SiO2, Al2O2O5. Fluorocarbonite is soluble in dilute HCl, HNO2SO4, H4.

Crystal structure and morphology:

Hexagonal system. Complex triangular double cone. The crystal is hexagonal or plate-like. Fine aggregate.

Physical properties: yellow, reddish brown, light green or brown. Glass luster, grease shiny, stripes white, yellow, transparent to translucent. Hardness of 4 to 4.5, brittle, specific gravity of 4.72 ~ 5.12, sometimes with radioactive, with weak magnetic. Transparent in the sheet, no color or light yellow under transmitted light, no light in the cathode ray.

Generating states: produced in rare metal carbonate rocks; granite and granite pegmatite; quartzite associated with granitic syenite; quartz-iron-manganese carbonate veins;

Uses: It is an important mineral raw material for the extraction of rare earth elements of cerium. Cerium elements can be used to make alloys, improve the metal's elasticity, toughness and strength, is the production of jet aircraft, missiles, engines and heat-resistant machinery important parts. Can also be used as a protective cover for radiation protection. In addition, cerium elements are also used to produce various colored glasses.

Xenotime

Chemical composition and properties: Y [PO4]. Ingredients Y2O.4%, P2O56%. There are yttrium rare earth elements mixed with ytterbium, erbium, dysprosium, gadolinium-based. There are zirconium, uranium, thorium and other elements instead of yttrium, accompanied by silicon instead of phosphorus. In general, the content of uranium in xenotime is greater than that of thorium. Phosphorus yttrium is chemically stable. Crystal structure and morphology: tetragonal, complex quadruple double crystal, was granular and massive.

Physical properties: yellow, reddish brown, sometimes yellowish green, also brown or light brown. Striped light brown. Glass luster, grease shiny. Hardness of 4 to 5, the proportion of 4.4 to 5.1, with a weak pleochroism and radioactivity.

Generated state: mainly produced in granite, granite pegmatite. Also produced in alkaline granite and related deposits. There are also outputs in the sand. Uses: a large number of enrichment, for the extraction of rare earth elements of mineral raw materials.

Lanthanum vanadium gritstone

Japan's Yamaguchi University, Ehime University and the University of Tokyo's joint research team issued a communique that they found in Sanhe County, a rare earth containing new varieties of minerals. Rare earth in the transformation of traditional industries and the development of high-tech areas which have "point into gold" role. The new mineral was discovered in April 2011 in the mountains of Ise City, Sanxing County, which is a special brine containing rare earth lanthanum and rare metal vanadium. On January 1, 2001, the mineral was identified as a new mineral by the International Mineralogical Society and was named "lanthanum vanadium gritstone".

Finished product

Carbonated chlorinated rare earth

This is the rare two major products in the rare earth industry. Generally speaking, there are two main processes to produce these two products.

A process is concentrated sulfuric acid roasting process, that is, rare earth concentrate and sulfuric acid mixed in the rotary kiln roasting. After the leaching of the mine water leaching, the soluble rare earth sulfate into the aqueous solution, called leaching solution. And then to the leaching solution by adding ammonium bicarbonate, the rare earth was carbonate precipitation down, after filtering to be rare earth carbonate.

Another process called caustic soda process, referred to as alkali process. Usually 60% of the rare earth concentrate and concentrated lye mix, melting reaction at high temperatures, rare earth concentrate is broken down, rare earth into rare earth hydroxide, the alkali cake washed with water to remove sodium and excess alkali, and then The washed hydrogenated rare earth is dissolved in hydrochloric acid, the rare earth is dissolved into rare earth chloride solution, the acidity is removed to remove impurities, and the filtered rare earth chloride solution is solidified by solidification.

Phosphate rare earth

Natural rare earth elements in addition to the rare earth in the mine, there is a considerable part of the apatite and phosphate rock mineral symbiosis. Because the radius of the rare earth (0. 848 ~ 0. 106 nm) is close to Ca2 + (0.106 nm), the rare earth is deposited in the phosphate rock by the same kind. The world's total reserves of about 100 billion tons of phosphate rock, rare earth average content of 0. 5 ‰, estimated that the world's phosphate rock associated with the total amount of 50 million tons of rare earth.

Aiming at the characteristics of low rare earth content and its occurrence in ore, there are many kinds of recycling technology research at home and abroad, which can be divided into wet and heat method:

Wet method, according to the decomposition of different acids can be divided into nitric acid, hydrochloric acid, sulfuric acid method. From the phosphorus chemical process to recover a variety of rare earth, and phosphate are closely related to the way.

In the process of thermal production, the rare earth mainly enters the silicate slag, which can be leached by a large amount of hydrochloric acid or nitric acid. After removing the silica by filtration, the rare earth is recovered by extraction with TBP, and the recovery rate of rare earth can reach 60%.

With the continuous utilization of phosphate rock resources, is turning to the development of low quality phosphate rock, sulfuric acid wet phosphoric acid process has become the mainstream of phosphorus chemical method, sulfuric acid wet phosphoric acid in the recovery of rare earth has become a research hotspot. In the process of sulfuric acid wet phosphoric acid production, by controlling the enrichment of rare earth in phosphoric acid, and then using organic solvent extraction extraction of rare earth process than the early development of the method has more advantages.

Mixed rare earth

From the rare earth ore containing lanthanum, cerium, praseodymium, neodymium and a small amount of samarium, europium, gadolinium mixed oxide or chloride by molten salt electrolysis made of metal. Rare earth total greater than 98%, cerium is greater than 48% of light rare earth. In the air easily oxidized to black, room temperature and water reaction, heating up and speed up. Can do flint, alloy additives, hydrogen storage materials.